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Basic Sociological Research Concepts

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❶A scientist who uses a questionnaire or test in a study is interested in the test's validity , which is its capacity to measure what it purports to measure.

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Basic Sociological Research Concepts

Switch to new thesaurus. References in classic literature? Some of Louis' and my adventures have since given me serious pause when casting sociological generalisations. Oh, I mean the real interpretative biology, from the ground up, from the laboratory and the test-tube and the vitalized inorganic right on up to the widest aesthetic and sociological generalizations.

That social-settlement woman is no more than a sociological poll- parrot. For your convenience, since this is to be no sociological screed, I shall frame together the different events into a comprehensive story.

He had been used always to the laboratory, and so it was that he turned the dining room into a sociological laboratory. Dr Hood paced the length of his string of apartments, bounded-- as the boys' geographies say--on the east by the North Sea and on the west by the serried ranks of his sociological and criminologist library. You're late,' boomed the author of sociological treatises, as he appeared. She knew that whatever she did she must do according to the law, and in the long hours of watching, the shot-gun on her knees, the murderer restless beside her and the storms thundering without, she made original sociological researches and worked out for herself the evolution of the law.

It does not refer to how what the results are but how they are figured. Glenn Firebaugh summarizes the principles for good research in his book Seven Rules for Social Research.

The first rule is that "There should be the possibility of surprise in social research. In addition, good research will "look for differences that make a difference" Rule 2 and "build in reality checks" Rule 3.

Rule 4 advises researchers to replicate, that is, "to see if identical analyses yield similar results for different samples of people" p. The next two rules urge researchers to "compare like with like" Rule 5 and to "study change" Rule 6 ; these two rules are especially important when researchers want to estimate the effect of one variable on another e.

The final rule, "Let method be the servant, not the master," reminds researchers that methods are the means, not the end, of social research; it is critical from the outset to fit the research design to the research issue, rather than the other way around. Explanations in social theories can be idiographic or nomothetic.

An idiographic approach to an explanation is one where the scientists seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event, i. Nomothetic explanations tend to be more general with scientists trying to identify a few causal factors that impact a wide class of conditions or events.

For example, when dealing with the problem of how people choose a job, idiographic explanation would be to list all possible reasons why a given person or group chooses a given job, while nomothetic explanation would try to find factors that determine why job applicants in general choose a given job.

Research in science and in social science is a long, slow and difficult process that sometimes produces false results because of methodological weaknesses and in rare cases because of fraud, so that reliance on any one study is inadvisable. The ethics of social research are shared with those of medical research. In the United States, these are formalized by the Belmont report as:. The principle of respect for persons holds that a individuals should be respected as autonomous agents capable of making their own decisions, and that b subjects with diminished autonomy deserve special considerations.

The principle of beneficence holds that a the subjects of research should be protected from harm, and, b the research should bring tangible benefits to society.

By this definition, research with no scientific merit is automatically considered unethical. The principle of justice states the benefits of research should be distributed fairly. The definition of fairness used is case-dependent, varying between " 1 to each person an equal share, 2 to each person according to individual need, 3 to each person according to individual effort, 4 to each person according to societal contribution, and 5 to each person according to merit.

The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in , [6] [7] while some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to with the publication of John Graunt 's Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality.

While Durkheim rejected much of the detail of Comte's philosophy, he retained and refined its method, maintaining that the social sciences are a logical continuation of the natural ones into the realm of human activity, and insisting that they may retain the same objectivity, rationalism, and approach to causality.

What has been called our positivism is but a consequence of this rationalism. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide , a case study of suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy. By carefully examining suicide statistics in different police districts, he attempted to demonstrate that Catholic communities have a lower suicide rate than that of Protestants, something he attributed to social as opposed to individual or psychological causes.

He developed the notion of objective suis generis " social facts " to delineate a unique empirical object for the science of sociology to study. For Durkheim, sociology could be described as the "science of institutions , their genesis and their functioning". In the midth century there was a general—but not universal—trend for U. American sociology to be more scientific in nature, due to the prominence at that time of action theory and other system-theoretical approaches.

Merton released his Social Theory and Social Structure By the turn of the s, sociological research was increasingly employed as a tool by governments and businesses worldwide. Sociologists developed new types of quantitative and qualitative research methods.

Paul Lazarsfeld founded Columbia University 's Bureau of Applied Social Research , where he exerted a tremendous influence over the techniques and the organization of social research. His many contributions to sociological method have earned him the title of the "founder of modern empirical sociology". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journal, see Social Research journal. Statistical — quantitative methods Cluster analysis Correlation and association Multivariate statistics Regression analysis Social network analysis Social sequence analysis Surveys and questionnaire Structural equation modeling Survey research Quantitative marketing research Qualitative methods Analytic induction Case study Ethnography Life history Morphological analysis Most significant change technique Participant observation Textual analysis Unstructured interview Mixed methods Archival research Content analysis Longitudinal study Focus group Historical method Semi-structured interview Structured interview Triangulation social science.

Anthropology archaeology cultural linguistics social Economics microeconomics macroeconomics Geography human integrative History cultural economic military political social Law jurisprudence legal history legal systems Political science international relations psephology public administration public policy Psychology abnormal biological cognitive developmental personality social Sociology criminology demography internet rural urban.

Anthrozoology Area studies Business studies Cognitive science Communication studies Community studies Cultural studies Development studies Education Environmental social science studies Food studies Gender studies Global studies History of technology Human ecology Information science International studies Media studies Philosophy of science economics history psychology social science Planning land use regional urban Political ecology Political economy Public health Regional science Science and technology studies Science studies historical Social work.

Humanities Geisteswissenschaft Human science. Index Journals Outline Wikiversity. Analytic frame Behavioural science Cognitive science Criminology Demography Engaged theory History of social science History of sociology Positivism Program evaluation Scale social sciences Social psychology Statistics Unobtrusive measures.

Developing Taxonomy, Themes, and Theory". Themes and perspectives 6th ed, Collins Educational. It was a complete fraud". Archived from the original on April 5, Halsey , A history of sociology in Britain: In Bottomore, Tom and William Outhwaite, ed. Rules of the Sociological Method. Cited in Wacquant Solovay and John M. Catlin , edition , p. International Journal of Public Opinion Research.

Readings in mathematical social science. Retrieved 1 September

Sociological Research: Designs, Methods

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Sociology is the study of human society and its patterns. Sociologists do research on the problems and development of societies and the ways that humans interact. Sociologists do research on the problems and development of societies and the ways that humans interact.

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Using sociological methods and systematic research within the framework of the scientific method and a scholarly interpretive perspective, sociologists have discovered workplace patterns that have transformed industries, family patterns that have enlightened parents, and education patterns that have aided structural changes in classrooms.

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Sociology is a form of social inquiry that takes wide ranging forms. There is no generally accepted definition of what constitutes sociology READ MORE HERE. Sociological Research: Designs, Methods Sociologists use many different designs and methods to study society and social behavior. Most sociological research involves ethnography, or “field work” designed to depict the characteristics of a population as fully as possible.

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Sociological definition, of, relating to, or characteristic of sociology and its methodology. See more. Research Methods in Sociology – An Introduction Posted on January 3, by Karl Thompson An introduction to research methods in Sociology covering quantitative, qualitative, primary and secondary data and defining the basic types of research method including social surveys, experiments, interviews, participant observation, ethnography and.