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Comments 0 Please log in to add your comment. Priyanka Das, Riju Patra and Tiffany Tang Purpose To use paper chromatography to separate a mixture of metallic ions in solution, thus using the position and color of the spot produced by each ion to determine the ions present in the unknowns. Procedures In this lab, samples of 5 different cations are placed on chromatography paper, along with a known mixture, which is a mixture of the 5 cations, and 4 unknown substances.
The paper was then placed in eluting solution, which is a mixture of HCL, ethanol, and butanol, and then dried and stained with potassium iodide and potassium ferrocyanide. The lack of reliability reduces the accuracy of the results. This also influences final average calculated for the Rf value of a cation. Determinate Error The main source of error was not making each dot of solution, on the paper, dense enough before allowing the dots to diffuse across the paper.
When applying the ions, if too much is used, it could lead to bleeding through in the paper. Furthermore, using too less could lead to difficulty in observation. There was also a risk of cross contamination in the capillary tubes. Advanced Studies Assignment 1. Stability- The product is stable. May cause damage to the following organs: Kidney, liver, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, skin, eyes, circulatory system, teeth.
Hazardous in case of eye contact corrosive , of inhalation lung corrosive. Wear appropriate gloves to prevent skin exposure. A respiratory protection program that meets regulations. Stability- Stable under normal pressure and temperature. Toxicology- Hazardous in case of skin contact irritant, permeator of ingestion, of inhalation, slightly hazardous in case of skin contact sensitizer Silver Nitrate Synonyms- none Chemical Formula- AgNO3 Product is stable under normal conditions.
This substance is toxic to lungs mucous membranes. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact, ingestion, inhalation. Wear full face shield, full suit, gloves and boots.
Avoid reducing agents, moisture, excessive heat and combustible materials. Hazardous in case of skin contact, ingestion, inhalation. Wear goggles, respirator and gloves. Hazardous in case of skin contact, ingestion and inhalation. Wear goggles, lab coat, respirator and gloves. Ferric Nitrate Nonahydrate Synonyms- none Chemical Formula- Fe NO3 3 Avoid strong oxidizing agents, reducing agents, light, combustible materials and high temperatures.
The purpose of the experiment is to determine the specific types of pigments found in a beat leaf and in a spinach leaf by using paper chromatography and two solvents: If a water soluble solvent is present, then there will be the movement of only the water soluble pigments up the chromatography paper.
Through capillary action these pigments will travel up the paper until the bonds between the water and pigment become so weak that the pigment must break the attraction and leave itself imprinted at a certain height up the paper. Therefore, they will remain at the concentrated area unless a lipid soluble solvent is present.
If this lipid soluble solvent is present, as opposed to the water soluble solvent, then the lipid soluble pigments will move up the chromatography paper instead of the water soluble pigments. The same idea will happen. The lipid soluble pigments will travel up the paper until their bonds between the water are so weak that it must stop following the movement of the solvent, and get placed at a certain height above the original concentrated dot.
Spinach will have mainly chlorophyll A and B because the leaf is completely green, compared to the beat leaf which consists of both a red and green shade showing that other pigments are present in this leaf. A certain solvent will only attract certain pigments up the paper. For example this experiment used water soluble and lipid soluble solvents. This means that when one of these solvents are present in the trial, only that type of pigment will travel with the movement of the solvent lipid soluble solvent with lipid soluble pigment and water soluble solvent with water soluble pigment.
The beat leaf contained more pigments in the leaf compared to the spinach leaf.
Paper Chromatography Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to observe how chromatography can be used to separate mixtures of chemical substances. Chromatography serves mainly as a tool for the examination and separation of mixtures of chemical substances.
The major types are the paper chromatography, thin layer, gas chromatography, column chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography. There are several applications of paper chromatography and other main types of chromatography techniques.
In this lab, samples of 5 different cations are placed on chromatography paper, along with a known mixture, which is a mixture of the 5 cations, and 4 unknown substances. The paper was then placed in eluting solution, which is a mixture of HCL, ethanol, and butanol, and then dried and stained with potassium iodide and potassium ferrocyanide. Conclusion The explanation of why different sorts of dye travel at different rates through a mat of cellulose fibres (paper) when a current of water flows through it is roughly as follows. The molecules of a particular dye in water and in contact with cellulose fibres will "partition themselves between the two phases" in a particular proportion.
Conclusion of Chromatography! Let's assume that you have a compound Z with you which is impure. You want to know the purity of Z (objective). Now, based on the nature you can either go with GC or HPLC. You develope a chromatographic method to anal. Conclusion After completing this lab, each pigment present was separated and identified based on its solubility to the solvent and the R F value of each pigment 93%(14).