He experimented greatly with new paints even at the expense of the traditional fresco style, seen most prominently in The Last Supper. Intensely interested in studying the human personality and portraying it on canvas, Leonardo attempted to capture the fragile, fleeting, and illusive qualities of human facial expressions in his Mona Lisa and Virgin and Child with St.
His plans and sketches proved greatly significant for architecture, as they constitute the blueprints for buildings later erected by his friend Bramante — Furnishing inspiration in architecture as well as in literature, the ideals of classical antiquity experienced restoration in the work of Filippo Brunelleschi — and Leon Battista Alberti — Further he is renowned for his discovery of the mathematical rules of perspective and his innovations in shape, seen most clearly in the octagonally designed dome base for the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence.
Alberti revitalized the ancient brick architecture of Roman times, as portrayed by his San Andrea church in Mantua, and established the Renaissance standard use of flat roofs, overhanging cornices, and prominent horizontal lines. Ironically 15th century music saw little advancement and primarily continued in the genres conceived by Francesco Landini —97 , who despite his blindness from childhood became a leading composer and music theorist.
Italian Renaissance church music reached its zenith during the 16th century in the works of Giovanni da Palestrina —94 , choirmaster of St.
Typified by the Agnus Dei from his Pope Marcellus Mass, Palestrina achieved a stunning sense of serenity in his works through balance, purity, and arrangement of texts that made the words clearly understandable during performance. With the free exchange of scholars and students between European universities and political exploits, such as the French invasion of Italy in , which brought new contact between cultural elements, Italian concepts and discoveries were reaching into the rest of the Continent by the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
The reorganized and powerful monarchies of the north quickly found that Renaissance thought suited their needs, as its endorsement of social class and military prowess enhanced their status, and its emphasis on public service, personal merit, and learning furnished an attractive substitute for the traditional manners of the uneducated and disorderly feudal classes. Moreover, the invention of the printing press at Mainz by Johann Gutenberg in changed the course of history by making possible the rapid dissemination of ideas to a populace moved by the spirit of the age to become increasingly more literate.
Disillusioned by corruption in the late medieval church, including simony buying and selling of church offices , sinecures receiving the salary from a benefice, or region to be served by a clergyperson, without overseeing it , pluralism holding more than one office , clerical concubinage, and the selling of indulgences, the bourgeoisie or rising upper-middle class of merchants found the Renaissance rejection of the recent past and the desire to return to the original sources of antiquity tremendously appealing.
This interest sparked a northern movement of biblical humanism, which exalted ethical and religious factors over the aesthetic and secular ideals typical of Italian humanism and was primarily interested in the Christian past, or Judeo-Christian heritage, rather than the classical Hellenic heritage of Western Europe.
More interested in the human being as a spiritual than a rational creature, these biblical humanists applied the techniques and methods of humanism to the study of the Scriptures. This exegetical approach was spearheaded by John Colet — , a pious English cleric who, after visiting Renaissance Italy, soon afterward began in lectures at St. Borrowing his notion of biblical humanism from Colet, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam — became the greatest of all the northern humanists and an internationally renowned scholar.
His most outstanding contribution both to scholarship and to the future course of church history was his publication of the Greek New Testament , in which he applied humanist rules of textual criticism to the extant Greek biblical manuscripts of his day, accompanied by a new Latin translation directly from the original language and by notes. As a result, scholars were now in a position to make accurate comparison between the New Testament church and the church of their day, with the assessment decidedly unfavorable to the latter.
A necessary complement to the work of Erasmus, Johannes Reuchlin — expanded the humanistic brand of scholarship to the Jewish Bible; in this prince of German humanists traveled to the Jewish community in Bologna to study Hebrew language, literature, and theology under the Jewish rabbinic scholar Obadiah Sforno. He established the University of Alcala both to train clergy in the Bible, establishing a trilingual college to provide the classical Latin, Greek, and Hebrew instruction that humanists like Erasmus regarded as essential for any sound theology, and to form virtuous character grounded in earnest Christian piety.
The ideals of Italian Renaissance architecture took root in France under King Francis I, when Italian architects and artisans were invited to France for renovations and new building projects for the king. Deciding to make his Fontainebleau Palace into a center for the arts in the s, Francis invited two Italian interior designers, Giovanni Rosso and Francesco Primaticcio, to create a new style of decoration using a mixture of painting and high-relief stucco molding known as strapwork. This new technique created a dramatic effect in a long gallery room in Fontainebleau known as the Gallery of Francis I.
His approximately chansons are programmatic works, where the musical setting narrates the text using sound effects, such as battle noises, and imitations of natural tones, such as bird calls, to augment the effect of the story.
When social dancing became a prevalent form of entertainment, composers were commissioned to write instrumental music to accompany the dances. In the treatise Orchesographie, a French priest writing under the pseudonym of Thoinot Arbeau —95 designed two broad dance categories arranged for fife and drum, haut fast and lively and bas slow and stately. Most famous was the gagliard dance from the haut category, featuring a quick duple rhythm with each beat divided into three subunits.
Artistic cultivation found its most fertile soil north of the Alps in the Low Countries and Germany. For example, Geertgen tot sint Jans —93 , a monastic painter from St. John in Haarlem, fashioned his famous Virgin and Child, where the figures are completely encircled by a wreath of smaller figures and objects, including several popular musical instruments. Bruegel remains remembered for his scenes of peasant life illustrating many aspects of their dress, customs, and forms of entertainment.
His paintings were often concerned with disclosing how biblical themes are revealed in the everyday world, as portrayed by his The Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind, which shows the helplessness of afflicted peasants. Observing animal instincts, appetites, and the evil of overindulgence in humanity, Bosch attempted to warn his contemporaries through his art, renowned for its overwhelming detail and morbid quality, that, save for repentance, salvation lay beyond their reach.
To this end, his Seven Deadly Sins depicts its human subjects, engaged in folly and gluttony, as pitiable and foolish, and his Concert within the Egg, in a paradoxical depreciation of a related art form, casts music in a diabolic light by depicting several persons standing inside a broken eggshell singing a profane song. This low view of music is shared by his best-known altarpiece, Garden of Delights, a triptych exhibiting scenes of a highly moralistic nature where musical instruments, such as the lute, harp, hurdy-gurdy, bombard, fife, cornet, and drum, serve as instruments of torture for lost souls in hell who had used music for immoral purposes during their earthly lives.
Two additional German artists of note were Mathias Grunewald — , whose Isenheim Altarpiece depicts the birth, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Jesus using medieval symbolism and a harsh realistic style, and Hans Holbein the Younger — , known for his ability to capture the character and personal attributes of his human subjects.
In both northern and southern Europe, the Renaissance generated lasting effects in the social and religious realms. While the ideal of the person as an independent entity with the right to develop according to individual pBibliography undermined the medieval ideal of one who was to be saved by assuming a humble role in the corporate hierarchy of the church, the return to and scientific study of the primary sources of antiquity made possible a far more accurate knowledge of the Bible.
His goal was to create something that suggested authentic emotion. In addition to this, Michelangelo also saw the artist differently than others did as well. He wanted to bring forth from the stone what was already inside it. Here we see an artist that sees himself as a part of the artistic process. This sort of though was new and it inspired many artists of the day. Renaissance Art The relationship between patronage and art During Early and High Renaissance of Italy, it was through the vehicle of patronage was the key fashion in which an artist established his artistic identity as well as established himself economically.
For instance, in considering Botticelli's "The Birth of Venus," it is important to remember that this vision is not an individualistic picture of a an artist living outside of his society. Rather, the patron who commissioned the Botticelli painting for his country villa was a member of the rich and powerful family of the Medici, and demanded that certain artistic standards and ideals be reflected in the work.
Sandro Bottecelli, ebart, "The Birth of Venus http: Venus, it was thought, and all…… [Read More]. Renaissance Was Born Out of. Considered part of the Northern Renaissance, German Renaissance developed in the 15th and 16th centuries among German thinkers who had traveled to Italy, the cradle of the movement, and had been inspired to import it to Germany. Humanism exerted a strong influence over the arts and sciences in several German principalities, and coincided with a period of political development.
Painting was one of the most prominent ways of artistic expression within the German Renaissance. Also, publishing and printmaking were two areas which developed significantly throughout this period. German art was deeply influenced by its Gothic past, but many painters became increasingly more interested in fusing these Gothic elements with newer developments.
Two of the most important figures of German visual arts were Konrad itz, a conservative German painter who was less keen on adopting Italian trends, and Albrecht Durer who was both a painter and a graphic master. In fact,…… [Read More]. Some claim that it was the result of the fall of Constantinople and the many Greek scholars and texts which found their way to Italy soon after bringing with them not only the knowledge of the classical world, but the new Islamic knowledge that was derived from it.
This influx on knowledge started a cultural revival which sought to recapture the glorious past of the classical world, but soon exploded into the creation of an entirely new cultural identity based on the classical past but transformed into something completely unique. The ideas of the enaissance spread throughout Europe completely transforming European nations artistically, economically, politically, socially, technologically, and in virtually every other aspect of culture.
One can…… [Read More]. Renaissance Art Reflection the Birth and Evolution. Of course, no story on beauty can ever be told without the use of Venus and the changes she undergoes throughout the years during the enaissance. Botticelli gave Venus life, Bronzino beatified her to a goddess-like pedestal, and Cambiaso shadowed her in humanity. It is through these artists' eyes that one can see the progression of beauty throughout the enaissance years.
Earlier enaissance artists sought to epitomize and define beauty as "an order or arrangement such that nothing can be altered except for the worse" Haughton, N.
While the movement brought along by the enaissance certainly aimed to focus toward a realistic depiction of beauty, this was not always so defined during Botticelli's time.
If one…… [Read More]. Renaissance A Comparison Between the Italian and. A Comparison between the Italian and Northern European enaissance World history is a fascinating subject, especially when one takes into account the multi-dimensional, often heavy impact changes that are constantly taking place, and that often change the course of history in a way in which it could have never been imagined.
After the Dark Ages, for instance, the enaissance or "rebirth," a period of artistic-related growth across Europe, was one such change that literally pulled Europe out of the deterioration in which it found itself after the fall of the oman Empire, and put it on a path of regrowth that was so replete with creativity that many scholars are still talking about it today. In order to better understand these historical changes, this paper will examine the enaissance, for it was a very complex movement, in order to understand it better, and will do so by comparing the…… [Read More].
Renaissance Building Projects Their Relationship. In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration.
However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality Daniells.
Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque Wellek. With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry.
As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period.
Renaissance Art Greatest Painter. Artist of the enaissance aphael was the son of Giovanni Santi, an educated man that was able to provide his young son with a remarkable life exposed to much art, many artistic geniuses, and the remarkable culture of the Umbrian court.
However, aphael did suffer great tragedy: Thus, as a tender child, aphael was no stranger to tragedy, something that no doubt instilled his life, making an imprint on him as an artist. One thing that aphael's father did before his death that had a profound influence on the child and how…… [Read More]. Renaissance Portrait Portrait of a. Perhaps, the woman did give birth to a healthy child and then died, then this portrait would be in the nature of memorializing the wife of the man in this picture and the mother of his heir preserving for the child a likeness of the child's mother since the mother was no longer living and present in the lives of the family.
This is the only double portrait of its kind painted during the Renaissance period that is known and as related in the foregoing material, women were always pictured from a profile view with their hair severely pulled back away from their face and their gaze averted from the viewer since women were believed to be seductresses of men making them weak or otherwise castrating them with rejection though only casting a gaze in their direction.
The hands of the man are displayed in this portrait and he appears…… [Read More]. The idea of humanism started in Italy in the 14th Century and thrived throughout the 15th Century. During this period, Italians placed a significant emphasis on education and increasing knowledge, particularly that of the classical ancient times.
The Italians also promoted the exploration of human potential, desire to excel, and the devotion to civic responsibility and moral duty. The link between humanism and education and culture appealed to people of high status to an extent that the idea of humanism had its greatest influence on the elite and powerful individuals "15th Century Italy," n. Given its impact on the then philosophy, the ideas of humanism permeated art from the enaissance onwards.
The ideas of humanism permeated art from the enaissance onwards because of the greatest impact of humanism on the elite and powerful individuals who had the ability to commission art. Actually, the enaissance was a by-product of the…… [Read More].
Renaissance Painting Leonardos Last Supper. Leonardo's Last Supper does something very different from the other Renaissance portrayals of this scene from the Gospel.
Unlike Andrea del Castagno's or Domenico Ghirlandaio's Last Supper versions, Leonardo's is at once more earthly neither Christ nor the Apostles wear halos and chaotic than the others -- and yet at the same time it is substantially more divine and imposing in its stark simplicity.
This paper will trace the compositional, stylistic and symbolic development of the story of the Last Supper as it is told by Leonardo da Vinci in his masterpiece of the same name. The first thing to note about the composition of Leonardo's Last Supper is that there is a distinct separation between the space occupied by Christ and the Apostles and the viewer. They exist together, cramped, huddled, literally on top of one another on one side of a long table covered like an altar…… [Read More].
Renaissance Italian Painting Consequent to. Renaissance was beginning to influence Italian painters in adapting their style in order for it to fit the needs of a more advanced world. Fra Angelico is recognized as one of the great early Italian painters from the Renaissance.
In his work of decorating the Dominican Monastery of San Marco, he mastered a painting style that was reported to have been partly inspired from Masaccio, with his paintings expressing motion and being filled with linear perspective meant to suggest depth of space.
It had been a common thing for the wealthy and most important families of Florence to hire talented painters to paint for them. Sandro Botticelli had been just one of the many Renaissance painters to paint for the Medici family. Even if Botticelli had spent a large part of his time working for great families, he still found time to perform additional paintings such as the one in…… [Read More].
Renaissance Actually Means a Revival. Martin Luther was offended by the widespread corruptions of the papacy; specifically the proclivity of Popes to engage in governmental matter. He also took instances with widespread practices of simony, the selling of indulgences, and issuing church positions based on money and influence. According to Luther, the individual source of religious authority was God as evinced within the Bible.
He believed that the numerous manmade religious positions were actually obfuscating these initial points upon which Christianity was founded. Luther believed that salvation was gained by accepting Jesus Christ and his teachings.
Since Jesus crucified and resurrected for the sake of humanity, all people had to do was simply believe in this Christ and live in according to his teachings. Luther advocated religious freedom for individual Christians. He did so because he believed the Roman Catholic Church was corrupt, and that faith in Jesus and his sacrifice was the ultimate form…… [Read More].
Brown's "The Genius of ome" offers a comprehensive analysis of both the convergence and dichotomy of sacred and profane elements in enaissance Italian art. Caravaggio stands at the midpoint, the pivotal space, between sacred and profane. As Brown points out, many of Caravaggio's altarpieces were initially rejected on the grounds that they were not sacred enough, and the author claims that his work has been described by contemporaries as "mezzo tra il devote, et profano," or "halfway between sacred and profane," p.
Interestingly, seventeenth century sources reveal scant evidence as to why Caravaggio's work would have been viewed in this way, and why his altarpieces were sometimes summarily rejected. Later in the chapter, Brown focuses on ubens, who encapsulated the dichotomies between sacred and profane.
This resources provides instrumental evidence related to the evolution of…… [Read More]. Renaissance current can be dated, in Europe, as starting around Renaissance started in Italy and moved towards Hungary, Germany and England, on one hand, and to France, after the French invasions of the Italian Peninsula, on the other.
A similar trend occurred in the fashion industry, but the exchanges were continuous and influences from Northern Europe to Italy were not unprecedented. The general characteristics of the initial period of Renaissance in Europe include the close-body fitting of the clothing and a detailed attention to ornamentation. Both men and women in the upper and middle classes wore elaborate costumes, made of rich materials. The clothing, particular in the upper classes, as well as in the economically successful middle classes, aimed to showcase the individual's success and his or her position in society.
As a consequence, in both Northern and Italian Renaissance, there is an attention to detail and to customizing…… [Read More]. David During the Renaissance. Renaissance Art hen discussing with regard to the Old Testament figure of David and to how he was represented during the Renaissance, one would have to consider the current as a whole in order to gain a more complex understanding of why artists directed their attention toward the character.
Artists during the Renaissance were determined to restructure social values for the masses to be able to acknowledge the significance of classical values. David had been a symbol of the classical era and artists in the Renaissance wanted to create works that glorified both him and the idea of the natural man in general. It was probably David's legendary character that influenced artists to express particular interest in wanting to portray him.
By looking at how each artist depicted him, one can understand the cultural elements that inspired these respective artists. All things considered, it would be safe to say that…… [Read More]. It has served as a reflection of the times during which it was created and for this reason, art is considered a very sensitive medium. It quickly absorbs the changes that witnesses in the surrounding culture and society. It is impossible for art to remain static and uninfluenced in the wake of societal upheaval.
It depicts the changes that enaissance era underwent. While some painters paid closer attention to political problems that occurred during 14 and 15th century AD, others focused mainly on religious changes. These changes are most prominent in the several enaissance paintings that depict Virgin and Child theme.
Unlike the dogmatic nature of religious beliefs observed…… [Read More]. Renaissance Baroque Comparative Analysis.
The compositional structure here is actually quite daring. Even though a viewer tends to "read" a painting left-to-right, as with a book, here the left side of the canvas seems to fade away into nothingness. It is not just the empty seascape on the left as compared with the dark richness of the forest on the right.
The left half of the painting contains the subject of the painting after all -- Europa and the Bull. It is Rembrandt's genius to have the drama of Europa and the Bull taking place in the lower left corner of a very large painting, almost as though the moment of drama is on its way out, and the viewer is lucky to have caught it. But it is also clever how Rembrandt essentially balances the canvas with two central subjects, equally illuminated from above -- we have Europa and the Bull on the…… [Read More].
The enaissance period lasted from the s to the s, and spread through most of Europe, though it is probably the most heavily associated with Italy. The term "renaissance" means revival or rebirth, and the enaissance did mark a period of significant cultural revival. In order to truly understand the enaissance, it is important to understand that the Middle Ages, the time period preceding the enaissance was a period of retraction largely due to political instability.
However, as Europe emerged from the Middle Ages and became more stable, the surrounding social landscape became supportive of an explosion in the arts and learning. Renaissance the Emergence of the. With the decline of the Church, other religious movements emerged dominant among Renaissance thinkers and followers, which included the movement of Protestantism, and later on, Reformation.
Under the Protestantism movement, reformed Catholic churches established their own assembly, disassociating from the Catholic Church to form their own religious organization. Protestantism, in fact, preceded the Protestant Reformation, which culminated the Renaissance movement in the 16th century. The Reformation gave birth to a more democratic, independent society, wherein people or the citizens are given more voice in decision-making concerning civil society.
Primarily, decentralization of social, economic and political power took place because of the Reformation. Scientific development became one of the most important areas that developed from the Renaissance. Apart from promoting humanism and intellectual thought, expressed through artworks,…… [Read More]. In terms of Renaissance philosophy, Galileo Galilei is an example of a humanist who strongly defended the gradual flourishing and subsistence to the scientific revolution happening in his society during the Renaissance period.
Galileo was a strong advocate for the usage of science in discovering truth and new knowledge, using the principles of mathematics and philosophy in strengthening the study of astronomy and physics in the society. Through Galileo, the nature of free scientific inquiry prevailed, challenging, though not condemning, philosophical and theological issues that cannot empirically answer truth and reality in life.
Dante Alighieri's "Inferno," meanwhile, is a literary piece that represented his inquiry into the spiritual and humanistic foundations of human existence during his time. In a period wherein theological foundations and philosophies are being questioned, Dante's "Inferno" confronted the moral and spiritual issues being questioned by Dante and his society during this challenging period of Renaissance.
Cultural Transmissions by the Italian. Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice.
Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. Art During Renaissance the Evolution of Art. Art During Renaissance The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe rotton , p.
This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…… [Read More].
Medici Family and the Renaissance. Lorenzo de Medici especially helped doubling the art collection of the family and provided a liberal and generous material support for the artists. Moreover, his great critical thinking ensured that the true artistic values of the time were promoted.
He constructed schools for painting and sculpture and monitored the artists that attended them in his search for artistic value. Under his rule, some of the greatest painters produced their greatest work entirely for him: Another dimension of the family's influence over art is the fact that the atmosphere at the court clearly left its mark on the…… [Read More].
High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 's.
This era continued into the late 's and ended during the 's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity.
The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning. The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated…… [Read More].
Influance of Renaissance Renaissance in. On the basis of the evaluation, they were to be employed or not. However, their talent was rapidly acknowledged and they were commissioned to continue the work without any other testing. The individual scenes constitute a whole because they comprise typological references to one another. They present Moses as prefiguring Christ. We must mention, however, that, only after Michelangelo's later work did the Chapel become famous.
After the Medici's expulsion from Florence, otticelli felt the influence of a Dominican monk called Girolamo Savonarola. In Savonarola's point-of-view, everything that wasn't useful in the life of humans didn't deserve any attention.
Therefore, he destroyed many works of art, in his "bonfire of vanities. As a review,…… [Read More]. In Hamlet's case, the dark Ages conquer the light and the last scene displays before Fortinbras' the Prince of Norway, whose father was killed by Hamlet's father eyes. Fortinbras seems to be the symbol for the rebirth of Denmark, in the light of a young king that lacks the putrid inheritance of an alienated royal family, like Hamlet's.
The Renaissance man, Prince Hamlet, seems aware of the inutility of trying to restore the reign of his royal family in Denmark, since its members are proved to be corrupt and not suitable any more to lead a country in the spirit a new born world. His acts could also be in the spirit of sacrifice, suitable for a Renaissance man, in the name of restoring the dignity of his subjects and the glory of his country. People like Galileo and Savonarola were ready to give up their most precious possession, life, for…… [Read More].
Art Conception Early Renaissance Imagine. The function of the work of art would be to stand before the city, and to show the city as wisdom personified, and by implication show that the wisdom came from the works and power of the Medici. It would make an analogy between the city-state of Florence and the ancient city-state of Athens. Because Athens was a genuine republic, it might even deflect some criticism from the Medicis, who were technically supposed to be residents of a republic, even though they ruled from behind the scenes.
The setting of the sculpture, next to David, outside the city gates would act as a powerful warning of the city's power with the violence of the anvil and David's shotgun as well as strike a balance between Classical representations of learning and the still-important tenants of the Catholic faith that must be honored in a world still dominated by the clergy. Italian and Northern European Renaissance. Culturally, the development of northern European art was not unlike that of Italy, particularly when powerful princes created individual states based on wealth and leisure which encouraged the growth of the arts based on commerce and on the patronage of the rich merchants who controlled these states.
This new and versatile artistic medium was exactly right for the formal intentions of the northern painters who wished to create sharp-focused, hard-edged and sparkling clarity of detail in the representation of objects and figures. While the Italian artists were interested primarily in the structure behind the appearances, being perspective, composition, anatomy, the mechanics of bodily motion and proportion, the northern painters were intent on creating appearances themselves, being the bright, colored surfaces of objects and figures touched by natural light.
Renaissance Humanism y nature, Humanists believed that the ancient teachings of Greeks and Romans were a solid foundation for intellectual pursuits and social philosophy. During the Renaissance the average man found himself turning away from a life that was governed by medieval Christian restrictions, and welcoming classical literature and paganistic views that paved the way to a more secular life and view.
The return to favor of the pagan classics stimulated the philosophy of secularism, the appreciation of worldly pleasures, and above all intensified the assertion of personal independence and individual expression Expansion of trade, growth of prosperity and luxury, and widening social contacts generated interest in worldly pleasures, in spite of formal allegiance to ascetic Christian doctrine Kreis, Erasmus was…… [Read More].
Italian Feminism and Masculinity. Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced.
Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy. Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" Noumenal, Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society.
Business Trade Learning Two: Financial Analysis Learning Three: Denouncement of Big Business Learning Four: Corrupt Politicians Lesson Five: Haughtiness of Economists How does the book apply to International Business?
However, some time I September Nesi had to sell it for the reason that there was no way to keep it in tip top condition so that it could compete against its rivals. Apparently, it was just too much trouble. In a world of international and free trade the house was not making any kind of profit and in…… [Read More]. Importance of the Renaissance. The enaissance is fascinating to study and is still culturally significant even today because of the high level of artistic and architectural production that was able to be produced during this time.
Thus, one of the fundamental reasons as to why this period was significant is directly connected to the fact that the works which were captured during this time continue to captivate the imagination of most people, and continue to impress and amaze.
The enaissance is important not just because of the high level and innovation of work that was created, but because it demonstrated a higher level of intellectualism and understanding about the human condition that was manifested through art.
The enaissance is significant today, not merely because of the high level of art that was produced, but because…… [Read More]. Comparison of the Renaissance and Baroque Era. Musically, the Renaissance Period introduced the use of polyphony and saw the rise of the cantus firmus mass as Europe's first major musical form; in addition, there was an emergence of national schools of composition, a birth of new secular forms, the beginning of truly instrumental music and a series of inter-related developments, such as the use of monody and the bass continuo.
With polyphony, all of the musical parts are considered to be of equal importance and when combined produce not only an independent horizontal movement but also a vertical, being a combination of chords. The composers of the "ars nova," such as Guillaume de Machaut, created music of…… [Read More]. Hamlet and the Renaissance Do. Hamlet clearly melancholic view of the future of humanity, although he is capable of acknowledging goodness, as he does when he praises Horatio's character before the play-within-a-play, and he even praises Fortinbras' action in the name of the Norwegian's own father, although it goes against the interest of the Danish state.
Finally, Hamlet admits that Laertes has a right to be angry on Polonius' account, as Hamlet's rash actions killed Laertes' father, even while Hamlet strove to avenge his own father.
Thus, rather than a desperate view of human morality, Hamlet's inaction seems to arise from a combination of paralyzing depression about the nature of acting in a meaningless world and internal self-doubt. He also has an over-active intellect that enables him to rationalize both the murderous instincts of people going against his own interests like Laertes, and as well as his own revulsion at murder, as when he foolishly…… [Read More].
Middle Ages and the Renaissance Are Two. Middle Ages and the Renaissance are two historical periods in Europe that give interest to many philosophers, writers, and artists, among many others, in their study of how the Europeans, in their respective periods, lived their lives. In the study of the Middle Ages, sometimes also known as the "Dark Ages," and the Renaissance, also known as the period of "rebirth," similarities and differences can be presented based on the people's way of life, religion, culture, politics, arts and literature, and economy.
One main difference between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is the way people value individuality. The people of the Middle Ages were guided by the teachings of their religion and church, which in contrast to the Renaissance whose people adhere more of individualism, valuing their potential of gaining achievements in life.
Renaissance has been known as an era in which Europe emerged from depression and economic stagnation…… [Read More]. Antonio Canova was an Italian sculptor from Venice who lived from to He primarily worked in marble and believed that he could use that medium to render an artistic view of human flesh. He is most famous as someone who rejected the excesses and filigree of the Baroque to return to classical style, making him one of the foremost artists of the neoclassical style. For a number of years, Canova's work was considered to be the greatest example of European sculpture -- to the point that in , Canova was invited to Paris to carve marble portraits of the emperor Napoleon and family.
Most art critics find that the combination of returning to mythology and discreet eroticism that flowed out of the enaissance and into the modern era, without all the unnecessary frills of the Baroque, to be his greatest contribution to art. Biography Canova was born in…… [Read More]. Troubadours During the French Renaissance. Troubadours actually represent an example of that change in the social set up that signifies individualistic approach.
Troubadours represent the rejection of social locks on the ability of people to be romantically in love. Italian critic Mario Casella also attempted to note the significance of troubadours as a special development of Augustinian Philosophy of individualistic approach. Silverstein, The troubadours dealt with varied important subjects like war, politics, personal satire and other subjects, yet the main theme of remained love and affection towards women.
Most of the ladies for which the troubadours were sung, were married. Only some exceptional troubadours sang for maiden girls. Thus, the concept of love touched through troubadours was conventional type and it rejected marriage as the major objective of love. Some of the genre of troubadours was very satirical and naughty in essence such as Alba, which is the song that is sung by a…… [Read More].
In particular, the story appeals to a wide array of diverse individuals, each with its own views on religion, culture and values. Through the universal appeal of David, many different interpretations have arisen throughout time.
These interpretations, although distinct, often convey a fundamental truth prevailing during the period of its creation. Aspects such as war, political policies, civil unrest, and culture values often matriculate into the interpretation of the David of Goliath. Art is no different in this regard. Both the Baroque and enaissance periods gave rise to new and distinct forms of belief and expression.
These concepts ultimately matriculated into many of the more commonly know masterpieces of today's time. Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Middle Ages and the Renaissance The Medici Family was the most powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th through the 17th century Medici pp.
This family produced three popes, numerous rulers of Florence, and eventually members of the French royalty Medici pp. From humble beginnings, the family achieved power through banking, in fact the Medici Bank was one of the most prosperous and respected banking institution in Europe, and it is from this base, that the family acquired political power, first in Florence, and then later throughout Italy and the rest of Europe Medici pp.
Cosimo de Medici is considered to be the real founder of the family's fortune and in , he controlled the government in Florence, and for the next sixty years ruled Florence although he had no official title Medici1 pp.
His son, Lorenzo, was also a powerful influence in Italian politics, yet like his father,…… [Read More]. Graphic Work of a Renaissance Artist.
- • The Renaissance was a rebirth that took place throughout Europe, it was started in Italy because of three advantages: thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the .
The Italian Renaissance was one of the most colorful, vital, and exciting times in history. Renaissance eventually comes from the French word "Renaistre," meaning "to be born again." The Renaissance was a revival or a rebirth of cultural awareness and learning among art, law, language, literature, philosophy, science, and mathematics.
The Renaissance applies to Italian art and architecture of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Renaissance is a French word-meaning rebirth. The Renaissance was the revival or cultural awareness among art, law, language, literature, philosophy, science /5(5). The most brilliant example of Italian prose in the High Renaissance (the early 16th century) is the work of Niccolò Machiavelli (–) on politics and history. His two principal books, The Prince and Discourses on the First Ten Books on Titus Livius, drew heavily on the author’s firsthand experience as a leading Florentine diplomat and civil .
The Italian Renaissance Essay Words | 4 Pages The Italian Renaissance Throughout history many art movements have emerged that artists and styles are classified under. Women of the Italian Renaissance Essay Sample. This essay deals with some of the different ways in which women have been represented in Italian Renaissance. It attempts to place these images of women within the cultural context of the artist who painted them and of the patrons who commissioned them.